Recognizing Various Grades of the Club Foot Syndrome
Written and presented April 2012 by R.F. (Ric) Redden, DVM
To better understand the club foot syndrome, we must be familiar with the mechanical formula and how it greatly influences the various degrees of hoof capsule distortion and bone remodeling associated with this syndrome. There appears to be a direct relationship between the degree of tension increase or contributive force of the DDF muscle and these two very distinct alterations from the normal healthy foot. This paper will describe that relationship and the soft tissue and coffin bone alterations that are found in the four basic categories of club feet.1 These characteristics are unique for each grade, however several variables can influence the stereotype mechanical model.
The Healthy Foot
First let's briefly describe a healthy foot on a light boned breed such as a thoroughbred, quarter horse, Arabian and other similar breeds. A healthy foot will have a relatively constant growth pattern heel vs. toe, especially when left barefoot. This uniform toe to heel growth rate is clearly revealed by the relatively even spaces between the growth rings, which routinely occur approximately every 30 days. Shoeing styles, trim and reset timeframes can alter this natural pattern to some degree, but it remains well within a range that can quickly adjust back to its original pattern. The hoof wall has a relatively straight, linear appearance and the toe angle has a very large range depending on bone angle (BA) and palmar angle (PA), which can also vary considerably. The approximate angle found along the growth rings when the toe and heel grow at a different rate will closely mimic the PA on the foot that has not been trimmed for 30-45 days.
Figure 1A Left: This horse has very healthy, sound feet despite a grade 1 right front club. Figure 1B Right: The right front growth rings indicate a tendency for a negative PA in the right hind due to the club in front.